The wireless communication refers to the transmission of any information over a distance without using any wires, cables or any other conductors. It is one of the fastest growing and vibrant technologies in the communication filed. The advantages of wireless communication compared to the wired communication is that the information can be sent to any distance from a few meters to a few kilometers. The information can be sent by RF and Radio signals. There are different types of signals which can be used for wireless communication.
Types of wireless communication
Satellite communication is one of the applications of the wireless communication technology which allows the user to connect virtually to any place in the world. These satellites communicate with the orbiting satellite using radio signals. When the transmitted signal sent to the satellite it amplifies it and sends it back to the antenna on the receiver.
These are the networks that are not connected by any cables but instead, they use radio waves to connect a device to the internet.
Convenience: The users can access the network at any time and at any location within the wireless network’s coverage area.
Mobility: Since it is not wired, the users can use the technology anywhere in the networking area.
Easy Setup: They don’t need cables and wires. So their installation is very easy and very cost-effective.
Security: We can secure such connections by using a password or other methods.
Expandability: these networks can be expanded by connecting to other devices, whereas, in wired technologies, we need utilization of wires and so additional costs will be required.
Security issues: In the wireless network there is a chance of eavesdrop and the risk of signal modification. So we have to make use of some kind of encryption methods. As a result, there are more complexities in the circuit.
Less Speed: The maximum speed it can provide is around 600Mbps which is nearly half the speed of the wired network. The speed of the network again decreases when there is the network is busy and populated.
Less Range: The range of a wireless network is about 100 meter. It is not suitable for large network structures. So in order to increase the range, additional access points and equipment are needed which increase the overall setup cost.
Wi-MAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is the technology mainly used for connecting a point to multipoint networking.
It gives an experience of fast web-serving without being connected through a cable or DSL. They transmit the information in the form of microwaves. Wi-Max can be used in two ways,
- Point to point connection
- Multipoint connection.
There are also two types of WI-MAX technology:
- Fixed Wi-Max
- Mobile WI-Max.
Since it provides a limited bandwidth, using the internet over Wi-MAX protocol is quite challenging. It does not provide broadband internet speed using this protocol. The cost of data available using WI-MAX varies with the distance from the transmitter.
It is a low power wireless communication technology which helps users to link their devices without the need for cables.
The Wi-Fi connection was made possible through radio signals, antennas, and routers. In order that a device is connected to a Wi-Fi network, it must have Wi-Fi cards. This network, allows a person to access the web at any place and at any time.
When signals are received by a Wi-Fi device, its Wi-Fi card reads the signals and creates a web connection between the user and network. Wi-Fi connections are sometimes free to use or they may be secured with a password for the users. Due to their low power transmission, these Wi-Fi technologies are limited in range
Bluetooth network is another low power high-speed wireless network used to connect such devices as phones or laptops to other similar devices.
Typical distance in which the Bluetooth can cover is 30 feet. The frequency band required for transmitting the data over a Bluetooth connection is 2.45 GHz and can support a speed of 721 KBPS with three voice channels. A Bluetooth device can connect up to 8 devices simultaneously. Since each device has a unique 48-bit address, they can be uniquely identified and connected.
- Less complication
- Less power consumption
- Available at cheaper rates
It is a technology used for controlling and monitoring applications which cover 10-100 meters range. As a low-power and low-cost mesh network, it is widely used for all purposes. It supports master to master and master to slave communication configuration. It also supports different modes including non-beacon mode and beacon-mode.
In a beacon mode, routers continually monitor whether there is an incoming data. These routers continually monitor the nodes in the network because a node can wake up and communicate at any time. When there is no incoming data, routers will enter the sleep state.
- It provides a low power consumption
- The packet size is small compared to WI-FI and Bluetooth
- Easy setup and installation
- It supports more than 65,000 nodes in a network
- The ZigBee network can easily and automatically establish connections
LoRa technology is a low power long-range wireless technology mainly used in IoT applications. The protocol built on the top of the LoRa Technology is known as LoRa WAN Protocol. This protocol uses ISM band technology for a low-power and wide-area network between gateways and sensors connected to the network.
Basically, LoRa network consists of sensors, gateways, servers and end devices. The typical topology used for a LoRa network is star topology. The end devices and gateways provide the network connection with a single hop.
- Have strong immunity to the interference
- Geo-Location: It provides a low power tracking technology
- Secure: End to end embedded encryption mechanism which provides high security to the data.
- Low connection cost: since the Lora technology operates on ISM band which is a licensed free band, there will be no spectrum cost.
- High capacity: since it has a high capacity on the database and supports a lot of messages, therefore, it is ideal for public networks.